What is municipal solid waste?

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is a term used to describe the waste that is generated by households, businesses, and institutions within a municipality. This includes a wide variety of materials such as food waste, paper, plastics, glass, metals, textiles, yard waste, and more. MSW does not include hazardous waste, medical waste, or industrial waste, which are typically handled separately.

How municipal solid waste is managed?

1. Collection: MSW is collected from households, businesses, and institutions by trucks equipped with containers or bins. Collection can be done through curbside pickup, drop-off centers, or other methods, depending on local conditions.

3. Processing: MSW is processed to reduce its volume and weight, recover materials, and/or convert waste to energy. Common processing methods include recycling, composting, and waste-to-energy conversion. The goal of processing is to reduce the amount of waste that ends up in landfills and to recover resources

2. Transportation: Once collected, MSW is transported to a facility for processing or disposal. Transportation methods can vary depending on the distance, volume, and other factors. Trucks, trains, and barges are common modes of transportation for MSW.

4. Disposal: Any remaining waste that cannot be processed is disposed of in a landfill or incinerator. Landfills are designed to isolate waste from the environment, while incinerators burn waste to generate energy. The goal of disposal is to minimize the environmental impact of waste and protect public health.


India is the second-most populous country in the world, and with a growing population, it is also facing a growing problem of municipal solid waste (MSW). According to a report by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), India generates approximately 62 million metric tonnes of MSW annually. This is expected to increase to 165 million metric tonnes by 2030.

However, MSW in India also presents an opportunity for resource recovery and sustainable development. Currently, a large portion of MSW in India is not managed effectively, leading to environmental and public health problems. However, if managed properly, MSW can be a source of valuable resources and energy.

Municipal Solid waste management

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Municipal Solid Waste

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